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James White

Naim Cd3 Service Manual __HOT__

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Naim Cd3 Service Manual

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After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department.

Continuous advances in imaging technologies enable ever more comprehensive phenotyping of human anatomy and physiology. Concomitant reduction of imaging costs has resulted in widespread use of imaging in large clinical trials and population imaging studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in particular, offers one-stop-shop multidimensional biomarkers of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. A wide range of analysis methods offer sophisticated cardiac image assessment and quantification for clinical and research studies. However, most methods have only been evaluated on relatively small databases often not accessible for open and fair benchmarking. Consequently, published performance indices are not directly comparable across studies and their translation and scalability to large clinical trials or population imaging cohorts is uncertain. Most existing techniques still rely on considerable manual intervention for the initialization and quality control of the segmentation process, becoming prohibitive when dealing with thousands of images. The contributions of this paper are three-fold. First, we propose a fully automatic method for initializing cardiac MRI segmentation, by using image features and random forests regression to predict an initial position of the heart and key anatomical landmarks in an MRI volume. In processing a full imaging database, the technique predicts the optimal corrective displacements and positions in relation to the initial rough intersections of the long and short axis images. Second, we introduce for the first time a quality control measure capable of identifying incorrect cardiac segmentations with no visual assessment. The method uses statistical, pattern and fractal descriptors in a random forest classifier to detect failures to be corrected or removed from subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, we validate these new techniques within a full pipeline for cardiac segmentation applicable to large-scale cardiac MRI databases. The

Segmentation of right ventricle from cardiac MRI images can be used to build pre-operative anatomical heart models to precisely identify regions of interest during minimally invasive therapy. Furthermore, many functional parameters of right heart such as right ventricular volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and thickness can also be assessed from the segmented images. To obtain an accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of right ventricle from cardiac cine MRI, we propose a segmentation algorithm formulated as an energy minimization problem in a graph. Shape prior obtained by propagating label from an average atlas using affine registration is incorporated into the graph framework to overcome problems in ill-defined image regions. The optimal segmentation corresponding to the labeling with minimum energy configuration of the graph is obtained via graph-cuts and is iteratively refined to produce the final right ventricle blood pool segmentation. We quantitatively compare the segmentation results obtained from our algorithm to the provided gold-standard expert manual segmentation for 16 cine-MRI datasets available through the MICCAI 2012 Cardiac MR Right Ventricle Segmentation Challenge according to several similarity metrics, including Dice coefficient, Jaccard coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and Mean absolute distance error.

This paper presents an automated method to segment left ventricle (LV) tissues from functional and delayed-enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a sequential multi-step approach. First, a region of interest (ROI) is computed to create a subvolume around the LV using morphological operations and image arithmetic. From the subvolume, the myocardial contours are automatically delineated using difference of Gaussians (DoG) filters and GSV snakes. These contours are used as a mask to identify pathological tissues, such as fibrosis or scar, within the DE-MRI. The presented automated technique is able to accurately delineate the myocardium and identify the pathological tissue in patient sets. The results were validated by two expert cardiologists, and in one set the automated results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared with expert manual delineation. Furthermore, the method is patient-specific, performed on an entire patient MRI series. Thus, in addition to providing a quick analysis of individual MRI scans, the fully automated segmentation method is used for effectively tagging regions in order to reconstruct computerized patient-specific 3D cardiac models. These models can then be used in electrophysiological studies and surgical strategy planning.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically late-enhanced MRI, is the standard clinical imaging protocol to assess cardiac viability. Segmentation of myocardial walls is a prerequisite for this assessment. Automatic and robust multisequence segmentation is required to support processing massive quantities of data. A generic rule-based framework to automatically segment the left ventricle myocardium is presented here. We use intensity information, and include shape and interslice smoothness constraints, providing robustness to subject- and study-specific changes. Our automatic initialization considers the geometrical and appearance properties of the left ventricle, as well as interslice information. The segmentation algorithm uses a decoupled, modified graph cut approach with control points, providing a good balance between flexibility and robustness. The method was evaluated on late-enhanced MRI images from a 20-patient in-house database, and on cine-MRI images from a 15-patient open access database, both using as reference manually delineated contours. Segmentation agreement, measured using the Dice coefficient, was 0.810.05 and 0.920.04 for late-enhanced MRI and cine-MRI, respectively. The method was also compared favorably to a three-dimensional Active Shape Model approach. The experimental validation with two magnetic resonance sequences demonstrates increased accuracy and versatility. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

In this study we proposed a fully automated method for localizing and segmenting the ascending aortic lumen with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Twenty-five phase-contrast series were randomly selected out of a large population dataset of patients whose cardiac MRI examination, performed from September 2008 to October 2013, was unremarkable. The local Ethical Committee approved this retrospective study. The ascending aorta was automatically identified on each phase of the cardiac cycle using a priori knowledge of aortic geometry. The frame that maximized the area, eccentricity, and solidity parameters was chosen for unsupervised initialization. Aortic segmentation was performed on each frame using active contouring without edges techniques. The entire algorithm was developed using Matlab R2016b. To validate the proposed method, the manual segmentation performed by a highly experienced operator was used. Dice similarity coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used as performance metrics. Comparing automated and manual segmentation of the aortic lumen on 714 images, Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -6.68mm 2 , a coefficient of repeatability of 91.22mm 2 , a mean area measurement of 581.40mm 2 , and a reproducibility of 85%. Automated and manual segmentation were highly correlated (R=0.98). The Dice similarity coefficient versus the manual reference standard was 94.62.1% (meanstandard deviation). A fully automated and robust method for identification and segmentation of ascending aorta on PC-MRI was developed. Its application on patients with a variety of pathologic conditions is advisable. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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