top of page

Acting Workshops

Public·18 members
Beau Wright
Beau Wright

The Ice Men: Mawson, Scott, Shackleton, and Amundsen and Their Legendary Expeditions to Antarctica



Mawson: And the Ice Men of the Heroic Age: Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen. books pdf file




If you are interested in the history of Antarctic exploration, you might want to read this book by Peter FitzSimons. It tells the story of four remarkable men who led daring expeditions to the frozen continent in the early 20th century. They were Douglas Mawson, Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, and Roald Amundsen. They faced incredible hardships, dangers, and tragedies in their quest to reach the South Pole and discover new lands. They also made important scientific discoveries and left a lasting legacy for future generations. In this article, we will give you an overview of what the book is about, who are the main characters, and why it is important. We will also introduce you to the Ice Men of the Heroic Age and their achievements. Finally, we will provide some recommendations for further reading if you want to learn more about these fascinating explorers.




Mawson: And the Ice Men of the Heroic Age: Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen. books pdf file



Introduction




What is the book about?




The book is a historical narrative that covers the period from 1901 to 1916, when four expeditions led by Mawson, Scott, Shackleton, and Amundsen explored Antarctica. The book is divided into four parts, each focusing on one of the Ice Men and his adventures. The book combines historical facts with vivid descriptions and personal accounts from diaries, letters, and memoirs. The book also includes maps, photos, illustrations, and a timeline of events. The book aims to give a comprehensive and balanced view of the four explorers and their achievements, as well as their flaws and failures.


Who are the main characters?




The main characters are:


  • Douglas Mawson (1882-1958), an Australian geologist and explorer who led two expeditions to Antarctica: the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914) and the British Australian New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (1929-1931). He was one of the first to use radio communication in Antarctica and discovered large areas of new land. He also survived a harrowing solo journey after losing his two companions.



  • Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912), a British naval officer and explorer who led two expeditions to Antarctica: the Discovery Expedition (1901-1904) and the Terra Nova Expedition (1910-1913). He reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, only to find that Amundsen had beaten him by five weeks. He and his four companions died on their way back from the pole.



  • Ernest Shackleton (1874-1922), a British merchant navy officer and explorer who led three expeditions to Antarctica: the Discovery Expedition (1901-1904), the Nimrod Expedition (1907-1909), and the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917). He reached the farthest south latitude of 88 23' S on January 9, 1909, and attempted to cross Antarctica from coast to coast. He is best known for his heroic rescue of his crew after his ship Endurance was crushed by ice.



  • Roald Amundsen (1872-1928), a Norwegian explorer and navigator who led the first expedition to reach the South Pole on December 14, 1911. He used skis, sled dogs, and a well-planned strategy to beat Scott to the pole. He also led the first expedition to sail through the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) and the first to fly over the North Pole (1926).



Why is the book important?




The book is important because it gives a detailed and engaging account of one of the most exciting and challenging periods in the history of exploration. It shows how these four men pushed the boundaries of human endurance and courage in pursuit of their goals. It also shows how they contributed to the scientific knowledge and understanding of Antarctica and its environment. The book also reveals the human side of these explorers, their personalities, motivations, conflicts, and emotions. The book is a tribute to their heroism and a reminder of their sacrifices.


The Ice Men of the Heroic Age




Douglas Mawson




His early life and career




Douglas Mawson was born on May 5, 1882, in Bradford, England. He moved to Australia with his family when he was two years old. He studied geology and engineering at the University of Sydney and became a lecturer at the University of Adelaide in 1905. He was interested in polar exploration and joined Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition as a geologist in 1907. He was part of the team that reached the magnetic south pole on January 16, 1909.


His Antarctic expeditions




In 1911, Mawson decided to lead his own expedition to Antarctica, the Australasian Antarctic Expedition. He wanted to explore and map the uncharted regions of East Antarctica. He set up a main base at Cape Denison and two auxiliary bases at Macquarie Island and Queen Mary Land. He led several sledging parties to explore the surrounding areas and collect scientific data. He also established wireless communication with Australia, the first in Antarctica.


In December 1912, Mawson embarked on a long sledging journey with two companions, Xavier Mertz and Belgrave Ninnis. They planned to reach King George V Land and return in six weeks. However, disaster struck on December 14, when Ninnis fell into a crevasse with most of the supplies and six dogs. Mawson and Mertz had to turn back with only one week's food and no tent. They faced starvation, frostbite, snow blindness, and exhaustion. Mertz died on January 8, 1913, after eating dog liver that contained toxic levels of vitamin A. Mawson continued alone, dragging his sledge for another month. He reached the main base on February 8, only to find that the ship Aurora had left just hours earlier. He had to spend another winter in Antarctica with six men who had stayed behind to look for him.


In December 1913, Mawson finally returned to Australia as a national hero. He wrote a book about his expedition called The Home of the Blizzard (1915). He also received many honors and awards, including a knighthood in 1914.


In 1929, Mawson led another expedition to Antarctica, the British Australian New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition. He set up two bases at Cape Bruce and Cape Hordern and conducted aerial surveys and scientific research. He returned to Australia in 1931.


His legacy and achievements




Mawson is widely regarded as one of the greatest Antarctic explorers of all time. He discovered large areas of new land in East Antarctica and named them after his sponsors, supporters, and colleagues. He also made significant contributions to geology, meteorology, biology, glaciology, and oceanography. He collected thousands of specimens and samples that are still valuable for scientific research today. He also inspired generations of Australian scientists and explorers to follow his footsteps.


Robert Falcon Scott




```html His early life and career




Robert Falcon Scott was born on June 6, 1868, in Devonport, England. He joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and became a torpedo officer. He was interested in polar exploration and applied to join the National Antarctic Expedition led by Clements Markham in 1899. He was appointed as the commander of the expedition and sailed on the ship Discovery in 1901.


His Antarctic expeditions




The Discovery Expedition lasted from 1901 to 1904 and was the first official British expedition to Antarctica since James Clark Ross in 1841. Scott set up a base at Hut Point on Ross Island and conducted scientific and geographical research. He also made several sledging journeys to explore the interior of Antarctica. He reached the farthest south latitude of 82 17' S on December 30, 1902, with Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson. He also discovered the Polar Plateau and the Dry Valleys. He returned to England in 1904 as a national hero. He wrote a book about his expedition called The Voyage of the Discovery (1905).


In 1910, Scott decided to lead another expedition to Antarctica, the Terra Nova Expedition. His main goal was to reach the South Pole and claim it for Britain. He also wanted to conduct scientific and geological research. He set up a base at Cape Evans on Ross Island and prepared for the polar journey. He selected four men to accompany him: Edward Wilson, Henry Bowers, Lawrence Oates, and Edgar Evans. They set off on November 1, 1911, using ponies, motor sledges, and dogs.


They reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, after a grueling march of over 800 miles. However, they were devastated to find that Roald Amundsen had beaten them by five weeks. They found a Norwegian flag and a tent with a note from Amundsen. Scott wrote in his diary: "The worst has happened...All the day dreams must go...Great God! This is an awful place."


They started their return journey on January 19, but faced terrible weather conditions, food shortages, frostbite, and injuries. Evans died on February 17 near the foot of the Beardmore Glacier. Oates sacrificed himself on March 16 by walking out of the tent into a blizzard, saying: "I am just going outside and may be some time." Scott, Wilson, and Bowers continued until March 20, when they were trapped by a fierce storm only 11 miles from a supply depot. They died in their tent sometime between March 29 and April 2.


Their bodies were discovered by a search party on November 12, along with their diaries, letters, and photographs. They were buried under a cairn of snow and ice, with a wooden cross bearing the names of the five men and a quote from Alfred Tennyson's poem Ulysses: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield." Scott's diary was published as Scott's Last Expedition (1913) and became a bestseller.


His death and legacy




Scott's death was mourned by the British public as a national tragedy. He was seen as a heroic martyr who died for his country and his cause. He received many posthumous honors and memorials, including statues, monuments, stamps, coins, and streets named after him. His expedition also contributed to scientific knowledge of Antarctica, especially in meteorology, geology, biology, and glaciology.


However, Scott's reputation has also been subject to criticism and controversy over the years. Some have questioned his leadership skills, his planning and organization, his decision-making, his treatment of his men and animals, and his motives for reaching the pole. Some have compared him unfavorably with Amundsen, who was more efficient, experienced, and successful. Some have also accused him of exaggerating or fabricating some aspects of his diary to justify his actions or elicit sympathy.


Despite these debates, Scott remains one of the most famous and influential Antarctic explorers of all time. His story has inspired many writers, artists, filmmakers, and adventurers to explore his life and legacy.


Ernest Shackleton




His early life and career




Ernest Shackleton was born on February 15, 1874, in Kilkea, Ireland. He moved to London with his family when he was 10 years old. He left school at the age of 16 and joined the merchant navy. He became a master mariner and traveled to various parts of the world. He was interested in polar exploration and applied to join Scott's Discovery Expedition in 1901. He was accepted as a third officer and a junior member of the scientific staff.


His Antarctic expeditions




The Discovery Expedition lasted from 1901 to 1904 and was Shackleton's first experience of Antarctica. He was part of the team that reached the farthest south latitude of 82 17' S on December 30, 1902, with Scott and Wilson. However, he suffered from scurvy and exhaustion and had to be sent home early on a relief ship in 1903.


In 1907, Shackleton decided to lead his own expedition to Antarctica, the Nimrod Expedition. His main goal was to reach the South Pole or at least the magnetic south pole. He also wanted to conduct scientific and geographical research. He set up a base at Cape Royds on Ross Island and prepared for the polar journey. He selected three men to accompany him: Frank Wild, Eric Marshall, and Jameson Adams. They set off on October 29, 1908, using ponies and dogs.


They reached the farthest south latitude of 88 23' S on January 9, 1909, only 97 miles from the pole. However, they had to turn back due to lack of food, fuel, and time. They also faced extreme cold, blizzards, crevasses, and altitude sickness. They returned to the base on March 4, after a round trip of over 1600 miles. Shackleton later wrote: "We have shot our boltand the tale is 88 23' S."


Meanwhile, another team from the expedition, led by Edgeworth David, reached the magnetic south pole on January 16, 1909, after a difficult journey across the Ross Ice Shelf and the Transantarctic Mountains. They were the first to do so in history.


The Nimrod Expedition also made several other achievements, such as climbing Mount Erebus, discovering the Beardmore Glacier, and conducting scientific observations and experiments. The expedition returned to England in 1909 as a success. Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII and wrote a book about his expedition called The Heart of the Antarctic (1909).


His death and legacy




Shackleton is widely regarded as one of the greatest Antarctic explorers of all time. He is admired for his leadership skills, his courage, his endurance, and his loyalty to his men. He is also known for his charisma, his optimism, his sense of humor, and his ability to inspire others. He received many honors and awards, including medals, honorary degrees, and memberships in prestigious societies.


However, Shackleton also faced financial difficulties, legal troubles, marital problems, and health issues throughout his life. He was often in debt and had to rely on loans and donations from wealthy patrons to fund his expeditions. He also had several affairs and fathered a child out of wedlock. He suffered from alcoholism, depression, and heart problems.


```html , Lionel Greenstreet, and Harry McNish. Meanwhile, another team led by Aeneas Mackintosh would sail on the ship Aurora from McMurdo Sound to the Ross Sea coast and lay supply depots along the route for the crossing party.


However, the expedition turned into a disaster when the Endurance became trapped and crushed by pack ice in the Weddell Sea in 1915. Shackleton and his 27 men had to abandon the ship and camp on the ice floes for months. They drifted northward until they reached open water in April 1916. They then sailed in three lifeboats to Elephant Island, a remote and uninhabited island. Shackleton realized that their only hope of rescue was to reach South Georgia Island, 800 miles away across the stormy Southern Ocean. He selected five men to accompany him: Worsley, Crean, McNish, John Vincent, and Timothy McCarthy. They set off on April 24, 1916, on the largest lifeboat, the James Caird.


They reached South Georgia Island on May 10, after a miraculous voyage of 16 days. However, they landed on the opposite side of the island from the whaling station where they could find help. They had to cross the rugged and glaciated interior of the island on foot. Shackleton, Worsley, and Crean made the crossing in 36 hours, leaving the other three men behind. They reached the whaling station on May 20 and were greeted by astonished whalers who thought they were dead. Shackleton then organized several rescue attempts to save his men on Elephant Island and on the Ross Sea coast.


He finally succeeded on August 30, 1916, when he arrived at Elephant Island on a Chilean navy ship called Yelcho. He found all his men alive and well, despite the harsh conditions and lack of supplies. He then sailed to New Zealand to rescue the Ross Sea party, who had also suffered from shipwreck, starvation, scurvy, and death. He managed to save all but three of them.


The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was a failure in terms of its original goal, but a triumph in terms of human survival and endurance. Shackleton wrote a book about his expedition called South (1919) and received many accolades and admiration from the public.


In 1921, Shackleton decided to lead another expedition to Antarctica, the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition. His main goal was to circumnavigate Antarctica and conduct scientific and geographical research. He sailed on the ship Quest from England in September 1921. However, he died of a heart attack on January 5, 1922, at South Georgia Island. He was buried there at his own request.


Roald Amundsen




His early life and career




Roald Amundsen was born on July 16, 1872, in Borge, Norway. He came from a family of sailors and shipowners. He studied medicine at the University of Christiania (now Oslo), but quit in 1893 to pursue his dream of becoming an explorer. He joined the Belgian Antarctic Expedition led by Adrien de Gerlache as a first mate and a ski expert in 1897. He was part of the first expedition to winter in Antarctica and to see the South Magnetic Pole in 1898.


His Antarctic expeditions




In 1903, Amundsen decided to lead his own expedition to sail through the Northwest Passage, a sea route that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Arctic Archipelago. He wanted to prove that it was possible and useful for trade and exploration. He sailed on a small fishing boat called Gjøa with six men. He reached King William Island in 1905 and spent two winters there studying the magnetic north pole. He completed the passage in 1906 and reached Nome, Alaska, in 1907. He was the first to do so in history.


In 1910, Amundsen decided to lead another expedition to reach the North Pole by flying over it in a hydrogen balloon. He sailed on a ship called Fram with nine men. However, he changed his plans when he learned that Robert Peary had claimed to reach the North Pole in 1909. He secretly decided to go to Antarctica instead and try to reach the South Pole before Scott. He did not inform his men or his sponsors of his change of plans until they were on their way. He reached the Bay of Whales on the Ross Ice Shelf in January 1911 and set up a base called Framheim.


He prepared for the polar journey by using skis, sled dogs, and a well-planned strategy. He selected four men to accompany him: Helmer Hanssen, Oscar Wisting, Sverre Hassel, and Olav Bjaaland. They set off on October 19, 1911, and followed a route along the Axel Heiberg Glacier and the Polar Plateau. They reached the South Pole on December 14, 1911, after a smooth and fast journey of over 900 miles. They planted a Norwegian flag and a tent with a note for Scott. Amundsen wrote in his diary: "So we arrived and were able to plant our flag at the geographical South PoleKing Haakon VII's Plateau. Thanks be to God!"


They started their return journey on December 17 and reached Framheim on January 25, 1912, after a round trip of 99 days. They then sailed back to Norway on the Fram and arrived in March 1912. Amundsen announced his achievement to the world and received a hero's welcome. He wrote a book about his expedition called The South Pole (1912).


His death and legacy




Amundsen is widely regarded as one of the greatest Antarctic explorers of all time. He is admired for his skill, efficiency, experience, and success. He was also a pioneer of polar aviation and navigation. He flew over the North Pole in an airship called Norge in 1926 with Umberto Nobile and Lincoln Ellsworth. He also flew over the Northeast Passage in a plane called Latham in 1928 with Ellsworth and Hubert Wilkins.


However, Amundsen also faced criticism and controversy over some of his actions and decisions. Some accused him of being dishonest, selfish, and opportunistic for changing his plans without telling anyone. Some also compared him unfav


About

Welcome to the Acting Workshop group! You can connect with o...
bottom of page